The Complete Glossary of Project Management Terminology (2023)

Project Management Terms

A - Project Management Terms

Accept- Decision not to act in the face of a threat. Project teams generally accept risk when it falls below risk thresholds or when the team feels it is best to act only when a threat arises. (See alsorisk taking)

criteria of acceptance- The specific requirements expected from the results of the project. To be formally accepted, deliverables must meet all acceptance criteria.

entrance examination- A test in which a team of end users analyzes a product across its full range of uses to identify potential issues.

acquisition process- This process obtains the necessary personnel and resources for the work of the project. Procurements are closely aligned with project budgets and schedules.

action item- An activity or task that needs to be completed.

action item status- This tracks the progress of an action item from its creation to its completion. Because work packages include multiple action items, keeping the status of action items up to date is important to the progress of the project.

activity- The smallest unit of work required to complete a project work package (comprising multiple activities). It takes time, resources, and finances to complete each activity.

activity code- An alphanumeric value by which activities can be grouped and filtered. Each activity is assigned a code.

activity identifier- A unique alphanumeric value that can be used to distinguish a single activity. Each activity is associated with an activity identifier.

activity tag- A brief description of an activity. Activity labels can be placed below the arrows that represent activities on activity arrow (AOA) charts.

activities list- Document all activities required to complete a project. Each activity is accompanied by its activity identifier and a description of the work involved.

Arrow Activity (AOA)- In this network diagram, the arrows represent activities and the nodes represent events or milestones. AOA diagrams can only show end-to-end relationships.

Activity in the node (AON)- In such a network diagram, the nodes represent the activities and the arrows represent the logical relationships between the activities. AON diagrams can illustrate four types of relationships: start-to-start, start-to-finish, end-to-start, and end-to-end.

Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)- Represents the total cost incurred for the work performed in a given period.

actual duration- The time required to complete an activity.

real effort- The amount of work expended to complete an activity. It is expressed in man-hours or similar work units.

actual expenses- The sum of the expenses paid from a budget.

true progress- This measures the amount of work completed on a project. It is used to assess the comparison between project progress and project baselines and is usually expressed as a percentage.

Adaptive Design Framework (APF)- A project management approach that rejects traditional, linear project management and instead embraces changing requirements and allows projects to be influenced by external business environments. ADF emphasizes flexibility in many aspects of project management and focuses on executing and evaluating project work in phases to allow room for replanning based on changing goals, objectives, and business requirements.

administrative closure- Refers to the formal requirements that are met to carry out a project. This includes, among other things, documenting the formal acceptance of the results and ensuring that all relevant information is sent to the project sponsor and interested parties.

overall planning- This strategy uses demand forecasting to manage the scheduling and planning of project activities three to 18 months in advance so that the necessary resources and personnel can be acquired or assigned efficiently.

Agile-OAgileThe method family is a superset of iterative development approaches designed to meet changing customer needs. Agile development takes place as a series of iterations, or sprints, with incremental improvements being made in each sprint. Because agile projects do not have a fixed scope, agile methods are adaptive, and iterative work is guided by user stories and customer engagement.

agile project management-agile project managementIt is based on agile software development concepts. Agile approaches focus on teamwork, collaboration and stakeholder engagement, and the use of iterative development methodologies.

Agile Software Development-Agile Software Developmentcomes fromagile manifesto, a set of principles that emphasize meeting changing needs through collaborative development and continuous improvement through iteration. Emphasizes the importance of responding to rapid changes in external environments.

assignment- The allocation of resources to planned activities in the most efficient way. (See alsoResource allocation)

alternative analysis- The evaluation of possible action options for the project work, in order to find the most suitable approach.

analog riddles- This technique uses historical project data to create time and cost estimates. It is considered the most imprecise estimation technique. (See alsotop down estimate)

analytical estimation- This technique calculates total project time and cost estimates by creating estimates for each project activity and adding them. Analytical estimation is considered the most accurate estimation technique. (See alsobottom up estimation)

Area of ​​application- The specific project category to which the project belongs. Application areas can be defined based on the properties or applications of the project's products or by customers or project stakeholders.

shared effort- Design work associated with components of a work breakdown structure and performed with reasonable effort. Since the amount of effort allocated (which includes activities such as quality assurance) is directly dependent on the amount of discrete effort, it cannot be considered separately from discrete effort. It is one of three types of activities used to measure job performance as part of earned value management.

focus analysis- During the project planning phase, this type of analysis is used to examine the different methods that can be used to achieve the objectives of a project.

Field Diagram Method (ADM)- A method of creating a network diagram that uses arrows to represent activities and nodes to represent events or milestones. ADM is used to create arrow activity (AOA) charts.

Artifact- Support elements for software development. Artifacts include both items associated with the development process, such as B. project plans, and items used to support actual aspects of development, such as B. use cases and requirements.

mapping scheme- The process of assigning people to work on the project for a variable number of hours per day as the project progresses through different phases. Assignment outlining is usually done with project management software.

assumption- Factors considered true during the design process, although there is no evidence of their validity. Assumptions of a project can affect its risks and results, so you should consider them carefully.

to allow- The power of attorney is usually the authority to make decisions granted by the administration. The specific order of approval varies from case to case.

Authorized Work- Jobs that management or other authority figures approve of.

Avoid- A response to an adverse risk designed to ensure that the risk does not materialize or (if the risk cannot be eliminated) seeks to protect the project objectives from the effects of the adverse risk. (See alsorisks prevention)

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B - Project management conditions

reverse pass- This calculates late start and finish dates for project activities by working backwards from the project finish date.

balance- A stage in the portfolio life cycle in which the components of a portfolio are balanced based on risk, cost, and resource consumption. It is an aspect of organizational project management. (See alsoportfolio balance)

Of balanced indicators- AOf balanced indicatorsIt is a concept or tool used to assess whether an organization's activities correlate with its overall vision and objectives.

bar graphic- A graphical calendar schedule with the start and end dates of project activities in logical order. (See alsoGantt chart)

baseline- This term represents the costs and schedules approved at the beginning of the project, using baselines as a basis for monitoring and evaluating performance.

profit taking-This term focuses on ensuring that project results provide customers and stakeholders with the benefits they expect.

Sketch- A document that explains what a program is intended to achieve and describes the contribution of a program to the objectives of the organization.

BOSCARD- This method describes and takes into account the background, objectives, scope, limitations, premises, risks and results of new projects.

bottom up estimation- This calculation calculates total time and cost estimates for projects by creating and aggregating individual estimates for each activity in a project. Bottom-up estimation is considered the most accurate estimation technique. (See alsoanalytical estimation)

knapp- Refers to the document created during the design phase of a project. It is the main document that describes the requirements.

Budget- The amount of money allocated to a project. The term can also refer to a complete list of income and expenses.

Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)- The portion of the budget allocated to planned works that will be effectively executed in a given period. (See alsodeserved value)

Budgeted Cost of Planned Work (BCWS)- The part of the budget allocated to works to be carried out in a determined period. (See alsoplanned value)

Burndown-Diagrama- A graph showing the relationship between the number of tasks to complete and the time remaining to complete them.

burst point- A point on a network diagram where several successor activities are derived from a common predecessor activity. None of the successor activities can start until one of the predecessor activities completes.

Economic analysis- The practice of identifying and solving business problems. Focuses on creating and implementing solutions to business needs through organizational development, process redesign, or a variety of other methods.

Business case- A documentation of the potential results of a new project, including benefits, costs and impacts. Show the reasons for starting the project.

commercial imperative- An issue, situation or circumstance with the potential to affect a business in one way or another, depending on the approach taken to resolve it. Organizations prioritize business imperatives for actions that generate potential benefits or prevent potential harm.

business model- The business model of a company is the system through which the profitable activities of the company are planned, structured and executed and through which it interacts with its customers.

business operations- The complete set of activities or business processes through which a company uses its assets to create value for its customers.

business processes- A business processesIt is a system of activities through which a company achieves a specific result for its customers. There are three categories of business processes: management processes, operational processes, and support processes.

Business Process Modeling (BPM)-business process modelingIt is the presentation, analysis and evaluation of business processes with the aim of improving them.

Business needs- The conditions that a product must meet to effectively fulfill its purpose in a company.

business value- The business value of a project is the sum of the positive, tangible and intangible impacts it has on the company.

C - Project management terms

calendar unit- The smallest unit of time, usually hours or days, by which the duration of the project activity is measured.

Capability Maturity Model (CMM)) - This model is used to assess the maturity of business process capabilities. It was developed to assess the capabilities of software development processes, but is now used in many other industries. Like other maturity models, the CMM allows organizations to assess themselves against external benchmarks and provide recommendations for improvement.

capital expenditures- CAPEX, or capital expenditures, is the money a company spends to acquire new fixed assets or upgrade old ones, usually for long-term use.

case study- A case study involves extensive and detailed formal investigation into an area of ​​a business, situation, or event. Case studies often result in formal reports that are published in academic or professional journals. They examine important, unique, or locally representative cases that contribute to the advancement of knowledge.

Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM)- This is an entry-level project manager certification offered by the Project Management Institute. It is designed to develop knowledge of project management terms and processes.

Champion- A project champion makes the success of the project a personal responsibility. This person encourages the project team to work hard, engage with stakeholders on behalf of the project, and support the project manager. The Project Champion is an informal role.

control changeChange control is the process of identifying, evaluating, approving, and implementing changes to a project. It ensures that changes are introduced in a controlled and effective manner, and that any adjustments required by the changes are also addressed.

change control panel- A designated group of interested parties who evaluate proposed changes and decide when and whether to make them.

Change control system/process- The process by which design changes are evaluated, implemented and documented prior to approval.

change freeze- The point in time when changes to the scope of a project are no longer allowed.

change management plan- Achange management plan Describes the change control process. It is created to ensure that all changes are managed according to procedure. Change management plans can be created for individual projects or for organizations that are experiencing change.

Change Request- A formal document submitted to the change control board requesting changes to the entire project management plan. Change requests are generally only made for significant changes, as minor changes with little or no impact on the work of the project can be submitted to the project manager.

client- People who directly benefit from a project. A team executes a project with special attention to the needs of the client.

closing phase- The final phase of the project management life cycle in which all aspects of the project are officially concluded and closed. This includes ensuring that all deliverables have been delivered to the customer, that the team notifies vendors of completion, and that the team keeps stakeholders informed of project completion and overall project performance.

chart of accounts- An alphanumeric system used to assign unique identifiers to all components of the work breakdown structure.

Collaborative Negotiation- Collaborative negotiation means that all negotiating parties obtain at least a part of what they expect from the negotiations.

Communication protocol- This document will be used to track all communications related to the project. Organized and edited by the project manager, it includes details of who communicated, when and where the communication took place, what information was shared, and the results of the communication.

communication management plan- This plan establishes who will send and receive information about aspects of the project, what details will be shared and when the communications will be sent. It is part of the project management plan.

communities of practice- Groups of people who have a common area of ​​interest within project management. They meet regularly to exchange and deepen their knowledge in their area of ​​interest.

competence- The skills and knowledge necessary to perform the tasks associated with a specific role.

competition structure- The set of competency expectations used to judge the suitability of an individual for a given role.

concept- The initial phase of the project management life cycle. In the conception phase, the team presents the opportunity or problem (with possible solutions) and verifies the basic feasibility of the project.

Conceptual project planning- The conceptual planning of projects includes the development of the documentation from which the organization and control system of a project arises.

(Video) Project Management Terminology | 10 Terms Every Project Manager Should Know

Engineering Parallels- An approach to product development where design and development take place simultaneously. It is used to shorten the development life cycle and release products faster. Running design and development at the same time can help improve design feasibility.

Construction- Configuring a product involves designing its functions and properties to make it suitable for customer use.

configuration management- Configuration management ensures that the product of a project meets all necessary specifications and requirements. It provides clearly defined standards for management and staff to ensure they meet functional and quality requirements and any other characteristics deemed important.

consent- A decision agreed upon by all members of a group.

Obligation- A constraint on a project. Constraints may include financial, time, or resource availability.

constructability- Constructibility is a concept used in complex and difficult projects to evaluate and study the entire construction process before construction begins. Reduce the number of errors, mishaps, and delays when construction actually begins.

construction- The process by which a team builds the infrastructure. Construction projects are complex. They are staffed by engineers and architects, while a project manager controls the work of the project.

consumable resource- A non-renewable resource that cannot be used once consumed.

contingency plan- An alternative or additional course of action planned in anticipation of the occurrence of certain risks.

safety reserve- An allocation of time or money (or both) to the occurrence of known opportunities that could delay or make a project more expensive. It is not the same as the administrative reserve, which is an endowment for unforeseen cases. The use of a contingency reserve is normally authorized when an emergency occurs.

contract management- The process by which a team manages a relationship with a contracting party. Establishes negotiation protocols between the contracting parties.

conclusion of the contract- The process of determining whether the terms of the contract have been successfully completed and paying the remaining terms.

account control- A work breakdown structure tool that allows cost aggregation for work packages as part of earned value management calculations.

check table- Control charts compare process results to historical averages and process control limits to show whether a process meets result expectations. If the results of a process are inconsistent or outside the limits of process control, it may be necessary to review and adjust them.

core process- A process that follows an established order and is fundamental to the performance of the process system or project of which it is a part.

corrective action- An action taken to align work with performance expectations after it failed to meet expectations. A reactive corrective action is not the same as a proactive preventive action.

cost basis- The sum of the estimates of the work package, the reserve for contingencies and other associated costs against which the performance of the project will be evaluated. A formal change control process is required to change the cost basis.

Cost-Benefit Analysis - ACost-benefit analysisit is used to weigh the costs of the project against the concrete benefits expected from the project.

Cost engineering- The application of scientific and technical principles to various aspects of cost management. Cost engineers contribute, among other things, to project cost estimation and management methods. In some industries, cost engineering may also be called project control.

cost management plan- This plan describes how project costs are planned, financed, and controlled. It is part of the project management plan.

cost of quality- Costs associated with project quality assurance. These costs can make the difference between unacceptable and acceptable project results.

cost saturation- A cost overrun occurs when unexpected costs cause the actual cost of a project to exceed the budget.

cost performance index- A cost-performance ratio measures the profitability of a project by calculating the relationship between earned value and actual costs.

Cost Plus Fixed Price Contract (CPFC)- With a cost plus flat rate contract, the seller is reimbursed for costs incurred and a predetermined flat rate is paid.

Cost Plus Vertrag Incentive Fee (CPIF)- In the Cost Plus Incentive Fee contract, the seller is reimbursed for the expenses incurred and an additional fee is paid if he meets the performance criteria established in the contract.

Cost Plus Cost Contract Percentage (WACC)- In a cost plus percentage contract, the seller is reimbursed for costs incurred and is paid an additional amount equal to a percentage of costs incurred if the seller meets the performance criteria specified in the contract.

Refundable Contract- A reimbursable contract is a contract whereby the seller is reimbursed for costs incurred and an additional sum is paid out of profit in accordance with a predetermined agreement. They are normally negotiated for projects whose costs are not fully known or precisely defined.

cost difference-Ocost differenceof a project is its earned value minus its actual cost. A negative cost variance indicates that a project is over budget. A positive cost variance indicates that a project is running under budget.

Cost Impact Analysis/Schedule- A cost/schedule impact analysis determines the impact of a specific change in the cost or schedule of a project.

hatch- A schedule compression technique used to speed up project work by increasing the rate at which critical path activities are completed by adding more resources, usually more staff or more equipment. Blocking increases project costs, so it is used first for activities that can be sped up at the least additional cost.

Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM)- Critical chain project management is an approach to managing projects that emphasizes the resources required to complete project activities in the scheduled order and duration of the activities. It uses resource optimization techniques such as resource leveling and requires flexible start times.

Critical Incident Stress Report (CISD)- CISD is a psychoeducational exercise for small groups that have experienced a traumatic event. It is sometimes used in project management to help project teams deal with trauma and restore team cohesion.

critical path activity- A planned activity that is part of the critical path of a project.

critical path method-Ocritical path methodIt is used to estimate the minimum time required to complete a project and to determine the amount of reserve for activities that are not part of the critical path.

critical success factor- A critical success factor is an aspect of a project that is critical to the success of the project.

criticality index- Each design activity is assigned a percentage called the criticality index, which is a measure of how often it is a critical activity in design simulations. Activities with high criticality scores are likely to increase project duration if delayed.

current end date- The most recent estimate of when an activity will finish.

current start date- The most recent estimate of when an activity will begin.

Actual state- A detailed representation of current business processes used as a reference for efforts to analyze and improve process efficiency, effectiveness, and outcomes.

D - Project Management Terms

data date- A data date, also known as a target date, is a time when the status of a project is measured and documented. Separate the actual dates from the planned ones.

Decision tree analysis- A diagram-like technique used to illustrate a chain of decisions and to examine the implications of various decision making or situational outcomes.

decomposition- The hierarchical division of project deliverables into smaller components that are easier to plan and manage.

faulty repair- An action taken to correct a product that does not work or does not meet expectations or requirements.

Define- The phase of the portfolio life cycle in which projects, programs and any organizational changes necessary to achieve strategic objectives are identified and examined.

final estimate- A final estimate achieves an overall estimate of project cost by calculating cost estimates for all work packages on a project. Final estimate is considered a very accurate estimating technique, with estimates falling within ten percent of the actual budget.

Detour- The transfer of risk to another party, usually through a contract.

Available- An end product or product component that is to be made available to a customer or interested party under the terms of the contract.

delphi technology- An estimation method based on expert consensus. Experts make estimates individually and simultaneously, and then review their estimates as a group before making another set of estimates. The process is repeated, typically decreasing the set of estimates after each round of revision, until consensus is reached. (See alsolongband delphi)

dependence- A logical relationship between project activities in a network diagram that determines when a dependent activity can start.

discreet effort- Design work directly related to the components of a work breakdown structure. It is directly measurable. Discrete effort is one of three types of activities used to measure job performance as part of earned value management.

discretionary branch- The preferred way to sequence activities when there are no logical constraints on how they should be ordered.

"Do nothing" option.- An element of a business case for the project, stating the consequences, if any, of not executing the project.

withdrawal- A method to control the release of project funds. Instead of making full project budgets available up front, management can choose to release funds at specific times. These releases are called downgrades. Withdrawals may coincide with phase gates, so funds are released at the start of each phase.

fictitious activity- In activity diagrams with arrows, where the arrows represent activities, the fictitious activities show logical relationships between activities. They are not real activities per se: dummy activity arrows are drawn with dashed lines to distinguish them from normal activity arrows.

time duration- The time it takes to complete an activity or task from start to finish.

duration compression- Duration compression techniques shorten the duration of a project without reducing its scope. This usually requires additional effort. There are two main duration compression techniques: blocking and fast tracking. (See alsoFlat compression technique)

Dynamic systems development method- The dynamic systems development method is one of the agile methods of product development. Like other members of the Agile family, it runs development in a series of iterations, making incremental improvements based on the user story. The dynamic systems development method works with fixed costs and time constraints and uses the MoSCoW prioritization method to identify the desired product requirements considering these constraints.

E - Project management terms

previous final data- The earliest time that a planned project activity can logically be completed.

previous start date- The earliest time that a planned project activity can logically start.

deserved time- A method for measuring plan performance that improves on traditional earned value management. Earned value management only tracks variance from the plan in terms of money and not time, and therefore does not accurately reflect plan performance at the end of a project. To address this discrepancy, earned program theory uses the same data as traditional earned value management, but tracks plan performance separately in terms of money and time.

deserved value- A concept for measuring project schedule and cost performance. Portions of the project budget are allocated to work breakdown structure components, and successful completion of a work breakdown structure component is recognized as earned value through work.

Value Added Management- A method of measuring project performance and progress in terms of scope, time, and cost. It is based on the use of planned value (where portions of the budget are allocated to all project tasks) and earned value (where progress is measured against planned value).meritedafter completing the tasks).

effort- The amount of work required to complete a task. It is measured in person-hours or similar units.

effort estimation- A calculated approximation of the effort - measured in man-hours or similar units - required to complete an activity.

expense management- The most efficient allocation of time and resources to project activities.

end user- The person or persons who will ultimately use the product of a project. Products are developed with end users in mind.

Improvement, Maintenance and Update (EMU)- Improvement, maintenance and update are project classifications used in the software development industry. Improvement projects involve improving the functionality or performance of the software. Maintenance projects ensure that the software works as expected. Upgrade projects create a new software version called a release.

company environmental factors- Internal and external factors that may affect projects. This includes things like the weather, available resources, and organizational structure.

Corporate Modeling- Enterprise modeling is the creation of a model to represent the structure, processes and resources of an organization. Business models are developed to improve understanding of how organizations work. They form the basis for improvement or restructuring efforts.

Epic- A collection of similar or related user stories.

Estimate at Completion (EAC)- The estimated total cost of all project work, calculated as the sum of actual cost and estimated completion.

Estimate of Completion (ETC)- At a given moment in a project, the estimate of the cost of the work that has not yet been completed.

estimation funnel- A metaphor for the greater precision of estimation that becomes possible in the course of a project.

assessment- The use of estimation techniques to arrive at approximations of unknown values.

chain of events diagram- A visual representation of a schedule network based on the chain of events methodology. Shows the connections between project activities and risk events.

Chain of Events Methodology- A method of analysis of schedule networks that allows modeling uncertainties. It is used to identify the impact of risk events on a time line.

driven event- The adjective describes an action that is motivated by the occurrence of an event.

execution phase- The execution phase begins after the approval of the activity and is the phase where the team executes the project plan. Execution is often the longest and most expensive phase of the project management life cycle.

executive sponsor- Usually a member of the organization's board of directors who is ultimately responsible for the success of the project. They provide high-level guidance to project managers and are accountable to the board for the success of the project.

expert opinions- The practice of using expert opinion to make decisions.

external dependency- An external relationship that affects the performance of a project activity.

Extreme Programming (XP)- An agile software development methodology that emphasizes a high level of responsiveness to changing customer requirements. Development cycles in Extreme Programming are short and releases are frequent. Key features include high-volume client communication and pair programming.

Extreme project management (XPM)- A project management approach used primarily for complex projects with a high degree of uncertainty. XPM is designed for projects where requirements are expected to change. As such, it focuses more on flexibility than rigid schedules. While traditional project management moves sequentially through the project management life cycle, clearly defining problems, areas, and solutions, extreme project management accepts that all three aspects change throughout the project and therefore Therefore, it emphasizes continuous learning over deterministic planning.

F and G - Project management terms

Plano B- A predetermined alternative course of action to be taken when a risk occurs and a contingency plan fails to prevent the effects of the risk.

fast track- A schedule compression technique or duration compression technique that reduces the duration of a critical path by executing parts of some critical path activities simultaneously instead of sequentially.

viability study- An assessment of how likely a project is to be completed effectively, or how practical it is, given resources and requirements.

From beginning to end- In a finish-start relationship, a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has finished.

from side to side- In an end-to-end relationship, a successor activity cannot be completed until a predecessor activity is completed.

fishbone diagram- A fishbone diagram is used in project management to identify and categorize the possible causes of an impact. (See alsoDiagrama de Ishikawa)

fixed duration- A task that has a fixed time to complete.

fixed formula method- The fixed formula method calculates earned value over a period of time by dividing the budget of a work package by the start and completion milestones of a work package. A known part of the value is taken at the beginning of the work package and the rest is taken after the work package is complete.

Fixed Price Contract (FPC)- A fixed price contract pays an agreed rate and does not include other variables such as time and cost.

fixed units- A task where the number of resources used is fixed.

stable work- A task where the required effort is specified.

Float- A measure of the temporal flexibility of a given task.

Flowchart- A diagram showing the complete sequence of steps in a process or procedure.

targeted improvement- An improvement strategy based on the theory of constraints. The focus is on addressing one limiting factor at a time, called a constraint, to optimize a system. Each limitation is improved until it no longer limits system performance.

fordism- Fordism, named after Henry Ford, is a system of production in which mass-produced items are accessible so that manufacturers can buy them fairly with their own wages.

forecast- A forecast or estimate of the future state of the project based on the available information.

formal acceptance- The step in which authorized stakeholders sign off on a product and indicate that it meets their expectations.

come forward- A technique used to calculate anticipated start and finish dates by working from a point on a project schedule model.

free swimmer- The amount of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the early start dates of a successor activity.

Head of Function- The person responsible for all activities performed by a specific functional department within an organization.

functional organization- An organization that organizes and manages employees into groups based on specialty.

functional requirements- The performance characteristics of a product. These are based on how end users will use the product.

future state- A detailed representation of the ideal state of a company's business processes after improvement.

Gantt chart- AGantt chartis a type of bar chart that shows all the tasks that make up a project. Tasks are listed vertically, with the horizontal axis marking time. Taskbar lengths should scale with the duration of the tasks. (See alsobar graphic)

(Video) 10 Project Management Terms You Need to Know

Hill- A checkpoint at the end of the phase where it is decided whether and how to proceed with the project. (See alsophase gate)

It will not- A point in a project at which a decision is made as to whether work will continue.

Meta- A goal set by an individual or organization. It is a desired end point that is reached by setting goals and working towards them.

define goals- The process of creating specific, measurable, and achievable goals and setting time frames for those goals, if desired.

dorado- The practice of incorporating features and enhancements beyond the agreed features of a product. This is usually done to increase customer satisfaction.

guide- The structure that defines the roles and relationships between project team members and key decision makers in an organization.

Graphical Review and Evaluation Technology (GERT)- A network analysis technique that uses Monte Carlo simulation to introduce a probabilistic approach to network logic and the formation of duration estimates. It is an alternative to the PERT technique, but it is not usually used in complex systems.

H, I and K - project management terms

network activity- In a schedule network diagram, a hammock activity is a type of summary activity that represents a series of smaller grouped but independent activities that occur between two dates.

deliver- In the project life cycle, a deliverable is the point at which results are delivered to users.

percha- An unplanned interruption in a network path, usually caused by activity-related oversights or dependent relationships between activities.

HERMES- A project management method developed by the Swiss government and used by business and IT organizations. It is a simplified method of project management that can be adapted to projects of different degrees of complexity. Provides document templates to speed up project-related work.

high level requirements- The high-level requirements explain the main requirements and characteristics of the final product, including its purpose as a product and within the company. (See alsoProduct description)

historic information- Data from past projects used in planning future projects.

personal management plan- A people management plan describes the roles and relationships between the people working on a project and how people will be managed. It is part of the project management plan.

supercritical activities- Activities on the critical path with negative clearance. They are created when a sequence of activities on the critical path leading to another activity is too long to complete in the specified duration.

information distribution- The channels used to provide interested parties with timely information and updates about a project.

initiation phase– The formal start of a new project. It's all about getting the proper approval and creating a clear definition for the project.

Aperitif- The information needed to start the project management process.

Inspection- The process of reviewing and examining the final product to assess compliance with the original requirements and expectations.

integrated insurance- The process of coordinating warranty activities among a variety of warranty providers.

integrated change control- Coordinate changes to all aspects of a project, including scope, budget, and schedule.

Integrated Master Plan (PIM)- A project management tool used to divide project work into large, complex projects. Lists project tasks and events in a hierarchical structure and shows the relationships between them.

Integrated Master Plan (IMS)- An integrated master plan is created from an integrated master plan. It is a list of all project tasks presented as a linked schedule.

integration management plan- A document that explains the integration plan and details how changes to aspects of the project will be handled.

integration planning- The decision-making process for how project elements will be integrated and coordinated and how changes will be addressed throughout the project management process.

inclusive management- Management processes that coordinate various aspects of the project, including cost, schedule, and resources (among others).

suave- An invitation to expressions of interest issued by a purchasing organization. (See alsoBudget request)

Diagrama de Ishikawa- Ishikawa diagrams are used in project management to identify the possible causes of an impact. (See alsofishbone diagram)

ISO 10006- A set of project quality management guidelines. It is a standard created by the International Organization for Standardization.

salida- Anything that could cause problems for a project. The term generally refers to major problems that the project team cannot handle alone.

to check- Project problems and the people responsible for solving them. It can also include problem status, resolution plans, and resolution deadlines.

Repetition- An iterative software development concept that specifies a fixed cycle time for development work, typically a few weeks. The development life cycle consists of a series of iterations, sometimes with a working version of the software being created at the end of each one. Iterative development prioritizes time over scope, so there are rarely any specific requirements that must be met in an iteration.

iterative development- Iterative development focuses on developing products in a series of fixed-time, repeated iterations rather than working toward a single result. At the end of an iteration, the team evaluates progress and sets goals for the next iteration.

Iterative and incremental development- Iterative and incremental development is any combination of iterative and incremental development approaches. It is an alternative to the waterfall development method: Instead of focusing on sequential development with a single final product, it goes through a series of development cycles, producing an improved version of the product, called an increment, at the end of each iteration. .

Kanban- The wordKanbanhalfvisual signsIn Japanese.Kanban is a visual communication approach to the project management process. Use visual tools like sticky notes or virtual cards on an online bulletin board to present project tasks and track and display progress throughout a project.

Initial meeting- The first meeting between a project team and the interested parties. It is used to review project expectations and build enthusiasm for a project.

Key Performance Indicator (KPI)- Akey performance indicatorIt is a key figure to measure the success of the project. Key performance indicators are established before project execution begins.

L - Project Management Terms

make/make time- A rest or delay between activities.

late completion date- The latest possible date that a planned activity can be completed without delaying the rest of the project.

late start date- The latest possible date that a planned activity can start without delaying the rest of the project.

lateral thinking- Lateral thinking involves using a bias method to inspire new ideas or solutions. This can be done in many ways, from using a random word to choosing an object in a room as a basis for thinking.

Lead time/delivery time- The amount of time that an activity can be ahead of the activity on which it depends.

lean manufacturing- A production methodology based on the idea of ​​rationalization, doing more with less, for example, offering customers the same value as the product, avoiding waste and therefore reducing production costs.

Lean Six Sigma– Lean Six Sigma combines the zero-waste ideals of lean manufacturing with the zero-defect goal of Six Sigma. The goal of Lean Six Sigma is to eliminate waste and errors so that projects cost less and deliver more consistent quality.

Learned lessons- The sum of the knowledge obtained from the project work, which can be used as references and points of interest for future projects.

effort level- Work that is not directly related to the components of a work breakdown structure, but that can be considered support work. Examples of effort are maintenance and billing. It is one of three types of activities used to measure job performance as part of earned value management.

lifespan- The entire process used to create the results. Life cycles are divided into several phases. Various life cycle models are used in project management.

balance line- A graphical technique used to illustrate relationships between repetitive tasks in projects such as building identical housing units. Each set of recurring tasks is represented as a single line on a graph. Project managers look for places where dependent tasks overlap, indicating that the successor task needs to be moved.

linear sequential model- A linear sequential model moves systematically and sequentially through the phases of a project's life cycle. It is typically used for small projects with simple requirements, since sequential development makes it difficult to review the design based on preliminary testing or feedback. (See alsowaterfall model)

Linear programming method- A graphical planning technique used to allocate resources when project work consists of repetitive tasks. It focuses on maximizing the utilization of resources and reducing the time lost due to interruptions.

network logic- A chronologically organized chart showing relationships between project activities.

logical relationship- A dependency between project activities or between project activities and milestones.

M - Project Management Terms

Management- The act of overseeing planning, personnel, and resources to achieve a goal.

administrative processThe act of planning and executing a project or process to achieve a defined set of goals or objectives. Management processes can be performed at various levels within organizations, with the scope and scope of activities often moving up the organizational hierarchy.

administrative reserve- An allocation of money or time (or both) to deal with unforeseen circumstances that may delay or increase the cost of a project. A management reserve is not the same as an emergency reserve, which is an assignment to known opportunities. Management must generally approve any release of funds from an administrative reserve.

Business Administration (MS)- A field of study that aims to improve decision-making in organizations through the use of quantitative and scientific research methods. Evaluates management decisions and results to find optimal solutions to problems, enabling better decision making. (See alsocorporate investigation)

master project- A main project file consists of several smaller projects, called subprojects, organized hierarchically.

Matrix organization- Employees in a matrix organization report to more than one manager, with different reporting lines representing different projects or organizational functions. A matrix structure can encourage employee participation and cross-functional approaches to problem solving, but it can also create confusion about an employee's role.

maturity model- Maturity is the degree to which an organization's methods, processes, and decisions are standardized and optimized. A maturity model assesses one or more of these aspects against a set of external benchmarks to determine an organization's level of maturity. Maturity models allow organizations to self-assess against best management practices. They often offer suggestions for improvement.

Big project- A complex, extensive and high investment project. Only difficult projects can be called mega projects.

melting point- A point on a network diagram where multiple predecessor activities culminate in a single successor activity. The successor activity cannot start until all predecessor activities have completed.

marcos- Milestones show progress points or specific events on project schedules. They mark the progress necessary for the successful completion of projects.

frame schedule- A milestone plan describes the time relationships associated with project milestones.

mission status- A concise statement of the objectives of an activity or organization. Mission statements are usually a short paragraph and can be created for entire organizations or individual projects. Its goal is to provide guidance and direction.

modern project management- General term for a variety of contemporary management strategies. Unlike traditional management, modern project management is characterized by a greater recognition of quality and scope variation; refine processes more frequently; emphasizes collective and interdisciplinary knowledge and team consensus over individual leadership. It's also less oriented toward traditional hierarchies: Modern project teams come from different organizational levels and functional areas.

Simulation/Monte Carlo technology- Monte Carlo simulation is a computational technique that makes probabilistic predictions of possible outcomes to facilitate decision making. For each possible decision, from the riskiest to the most conservative, a Monte Carlo simulation provides the decision maker with a range of possible outcomes and the probability of their occurrence.

Moscow- The MoSCoW prioritization methodology allows project managers to communicate with stakeholders about the importance of meeting specific requirements. The acronym indicates four categories of priority and importance for project requirements. Each requirement is prioritized as Must, Must, Could, or No.

most likely duration- An estimate of the most likely time it will take to complete an activity. It can be used to calculate the expected duration of the activity using a technique called three-point estimation.

Motivation- Motive or stimulus that leads a person to behave in a certain way. In management, motivation is related to the desire to pursue personal or organizational goals and is positively associated with productivity.

Murphy's Law- Murphy's Law - "What can go wrong will go wrong" - is cited in project management as a reason to properly plan for contingencies.

N - Project Management Terms

near critical activity- A near-critical activity has little or full float. Near-critical activities have a high probability of becoming critical as their slack is easily exhausted.

Close to the critical path- A set of activities with only small amounts of total reserve, called quasi-critical activities. A quasi-critical path can become a critical path when its slack is exhausted.

negative deviation- The amount by which the actual performance of the project is worse than the planned performance of the project. Negative time and budget variances show that the project is taking longer or more expensive than planned.

negotiation- A discussion to resolve a problem between the parties. Negotiations can take place at any time during an activity and can be formal or informal.

Capitalwert (VPN)- Net present value is a concept that compares the current value of a monetary unit with its potential inflation-adjusted value in the future. It allows organizations to determine the financial benefit, or lack thereof, of long-term projects.

network path- In a schedule network diagram, a network path is a continuous series of logically connected activities.

He- In a network diagram, a node is a point where dependency lines meet. In node activity diagrams, nodes represent activities. In activity arrow diagrams, they represent events or phases.

Nonlinear Management (NLM)- Nonlinear management generally refers to management practices that emphasize flexibility, self-organization, and adaptation to changing circumstances. It contradicts the concepts of linear management, which seek to impose structure on organizations. Defining characteristics of nonlinear management include encouraging innovative thinking, being proactive in responding to challenges, and flexible work arrangements for employees.

O - Project Management Terms

aim- A clear and concise statement of what an activity is intended to achieve. Goals are written SMART: specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time bound. A successful project meets all of its stated objectives.

Operation and maintenance- Operation and maintenance is the phase in which a project or system is handed over to the personnel who start it up completely and perform routine maintenance.

operational management- The duty to ensure the optimal functioning of the operations of an organization. Operations managers maintain and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of business processes. They strive to develop processes that deliver high-quality results while keeping costs low.

Operations Research (OR)- A field of study that uses mathematical, statistical and scientific methods to support and optimize decision making. It uses techniques such as mathematical modeling and optimization to enable better decision making. (See alsoadministrative science)

Chance- In project management, an opportunity is a possibility that can contribute to the objectives of the project. Opportunities in project management are classified as a type of risk.

opportunity costs- The opportunity cost of a given course of action is the loss of potential earnings from all alternative courses of action.

optimistic duration- An estimate of the shortest time it will take to complete a specific activity or task. It can be used to calculate the expected duration of the activity using a technique called three-point estimation.

estimated magnitude- A magnitude estimate provides an early and inaccurate idea of ​​the time and money required to complete a project. It uses historical data from completed projects to create adjusted estimates for similar new projects, with these estimates typically ranging from -25% to +75% of the actual budget to indicate the level of uncertainty involved.

Organization- A formally structured arrangement of parts that actively pursue a collective purpose. Organizations can be influenced by external factors, which in turn can influence the external environment.

organizational development- In general, organizational development includes strategic efforts to improve aspects of organizational performance, such as effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability, and aspects of organizational health, such as employee satisfaction and commitment. The term can also refer to an area of ​​study that focuses on the characteristics of organizations and their growth and development.

Organizational structure- A hierarchical model of the units of an organization and all its activities. It shows the relationships between activities and organizational units and describes the responsibilities of each unit, providing a holistic perspective of how an organization works.

organizational facilitator- Any practice, tool, knowledge or skill base that makes it easier for an organization to achieve its objectives can be called an organizational enabler.

organizational planning- The strategic process of defining the roles, responsibilities and reporting hierarchies of the parties within an organization, taking into account the objectives of the organization. It is carried out based on the principles and strategies by which an organization manages its members.

Organizational Process Assets- The specific formal and informal plans and processes used in an organization. They also represent the sum total of knowledge and experience accumulated in previous efforts. Essentially, organizational process assets are the unique knowledge and processes that facilitate an organization's operations.

Management of organizational projects.- A strategic approach that emphasizes the effective management of projects, programs and portfolios as the best way to pursue the objectives of the organization. It focuses on aligning an organization's activities with its objectives and managing these activities together so that they contribute to the objectives.

Organizational Project Management Maturity- A measure of an organization's ability to achieve its objectives through the effective management of all its activities. It can be assessed using a maturity model called OPM3 which, like other maturity models, provides comparisons and recommendations for improvement.

Salida -In project management, an output is the final (usually physical) product of a process.

Full control of changes.- The evaluation, coordination and management of changes related to the project. It is about both the effective integration of changes for the benefit of the project and the management of adverse changes or emergencies so that project activities are not interrupted.

P - Project management terms

Statement P3- P3 Assurance includes guarantees from sponsors and stakeholders that projects, programs and portfolios are on track to meet performance expectations, achieve objectives and meet requirements.

P3 administration- P3 management refers collectively to the management of projects, programs and portfolios.

parallel life cycle- In a parallel life cycle, certain phases run in parallel (overlap).

parametric estimation- A technique for estimating cost and duration based on the use of historical data to establish relationships between variables, for example, calculating the unit cost and the number of units needed to complete a similar activity.

Pareto Diagram- A Pareto chart is a combination of bar and line charts, where the bars represent category frequencies in descending order from left to right, and the line represents the cumulative total as a percentage.

(Video) PMP Definitions: PMBOK 6th Edition Glossary (part 1)

convergence of roads- In a schedule network diagram, path convergence occurs when an activity has multiple predecessors.

detour- In a schedule network diagram, path divergence occurs when an activity has multiple successors.

full percentage- Percent Complete indicates the amount of work on an activity as a percentage of the total workload.

Energy Measurement Baseline- A performance measurement baseline uses schedule, cost, and scope baselines to provide a benchmark for evaluating project performance. A deviation from the power measurement baseline can lead to corrective actions.

performance reports- The performance report formally informs stakeholders about the current performance of a project and the projected future performance. Aspects of performance to be reported are typically defined in a communication management plan.

implementing organizationThe performing organization of a project is the organization whose members and resources most directly perform the work of the project.

pessimistic duration- The pessimistic duration is an estimate of the longest time it will take to complete a given activity or task. It can be used to calculate the expected duration of the activity using a technique called three-point estimation.

PEST-Anal- A PEST analysis examines how political, economic, social and technological factors can affect a project.

Practices- A specific phase in the life cycle of a project.

phase gate- A phase gate is a checkpoint at the end of the phase where the project leader reviews the progress and decides whether to proceed to the next phase, review the work done in the phase, or end the project.

Planwert (PV)- The budget assigned to the work to be carried out. (See alsobudgeted costs for planned work)

planning- The development of a procedure to achieve goals or objectives.

planning stage- In project management, planning refers specifically to a phase of the life cycle in which plans are made for the management, control and execution and what is intended to be achieved with a project.

poker planning- An estimation technique based on consensus. Try to avoid the anchor effect, where the first estimate forms the basis for all subsequent estimates, by having project team members simultaneously calculate and discuss their estimates until agreement is reached.

briefcase- A set of programs and projects managed collectively.

portfolio balance- One aspect of organizational project management, portfolio balancing, involves selecting and adjusting the components of a portfolio so that they can be managed in accordance with organizational objectives.

Portfolio-Graphic- A portfolio letter describes the formal structure of a portfolio and describes what it intends to achieve. Authorizes the creation of a portfolio and links its management to organizational objectives.

portfolio management- The collective management of portfolios and its components according to organizational project management concepts.

portfolio manager- The person responsible for the accounting and control of a portfolio in accordance with the organizational concepts of project management.

Portfolio, Program and Project Management Maturity Model (P3M3)- The P3M3 assesses the organization's performance in managing portfolios, programs and projects in various key process areas (KPAs). Like other maturity models, P3M3 allows organizations to measure their performance against external benchmarks and provides a roadmap for improving project performance and delivery.

positive deviation- How much better the actual performance of the project is than the projected performance of the project. Positive time and budget variances indicate that the project is progressing faster or cheaper than planned.

Precedence Diagram Method (PDM)- The process of creating a network diagram of the project schedule. Illustrates the logical relationships between project activities and shows the order in which they should be performed, using nodes to represent activities and arrows to represent dependencies. The PDM also displays early and late start and finish dates and duration of activities.

priority network- A priority grid visually indicates the relationships between project activities. Boxes and links are used to represent activities and activity relationships. Priority networks also describe the temporal relationships and constraints associated with activities.

predecessor activity- In a schedule, a predecessor activity logically precedes another activity that depends on the predecessor.

Precautionary measures- An action taken to ensure that future work does not deviate from performance expectations. A proactive preventive action is not the same as a reactive corrective one.

PRINZ2- PRINZ2is an acronym for Projects in Controlled Environments, version 2. It is a project management method that emphasizes the business case for projects. PRINCE2 management is based on a clear organization of management and project roles and responsibilities where necessary, not mandatory. It involves planning and executing projects in a series of phases with specific requirements for each work package.

prisma- PRiSM is an acronym for projects that integrate sustainable methods. It is a project management method that aims to minimize negative impacts on society and the environment. PRISM focuses on sustainability. It is essentially green project management.

Probability and impact matrix- A visual framework to classify risks by probability and impact.

problem- A problem statement and succinctly describe a problem that needs to be solved. It is used to focus and direct problem solving efforts.

procedures- A process is a repeatable sequence of activities with known inputs and outputs. Processes consume energy.

process architecture- The sum of structures, components and relationships that make up a process system, which is a complex system of processes. It refers to the overall design of a process system and includes both the infrastructure (the constituent parts and relationships) and the superstructure (the larger system to which the process system belongs).

process management- Act of planning, coordination and monitoring of processes to improve results, reduce input and energy costs, maintain and improve efficiency and effectiveness.

Process-based project management- A methodology that sees projects as a means to achieve the objectives of the organization. It is about using an organization's mission and values ​​to guide the creation and achievement of project objectives. If the project objectives do not match the company's mission statement, they will be adjusted accordingly.

purchasing management plan- A procurement management plan explains how an organization obtains the external resources needed for a project.

Product Structure Plan (PBS)- A product breakdown structure is used in project management to capture and communicate all project deliverables in a hierarchical tree structure. It can be viewed as a complete list of all project deliverables and results.

Product description- A product description defines and describes a project product and its purpose. (See alsohigh demands)

product verification- Product verification includes examining a delivery to ensure, among other things, that it meets the requirements, quality standards, and expectations of the product description. It is done before presenting a product to a customer for acceptance.

Professional Development Unit (PDU)- A continuing education session attended by Project Management Professionals (PMPs) to maintain certification.

program- A set of collective management projects.

program table- Approved document that authorizes the use of resources for a program and links its management to the objectives of the organization.

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)-NAUGHTYIt is a statistical procedure for the analysis of activity and project times. PERT networks are usually represented by activity arrow diagrams. The method uses optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely durations to estimate expected durations of project activities and to determine transition times, early and late start dates, and critical paths. (See alsothree point estimate)

program management- Collective management of programs and their components according to the concepts of organizational project management.

Program Director- A program manager has formal authority to manage a program and is accountable for achieving its objectives within the framework of the organization's project management methods. They provide high-level supervision for all projects within a program.

progress analysis- Measure progress against performance baselines. Progress analysis collects information about the status of an activity that can lead to corrective action.

progressive elaboration- The practice of adding and updating details in a project management plan. The goal is to increase the level of detail as the estimates are revised and more up-to-date information becomes available.

Project- A temporary and intentional effort to create a unique result. have a projectclearly defined stages, and your success will be measured by achieving your stated goals.

project billing- In project management, project accounting is concerned with reporting on the financial status of projects. Measure financial performance and actual costs against budgets or baselines. Thus, it complements project management and provides financial information to the sponsor. Project accounting may also be called labor cost accounting.

project basis- A project baseline includes the budget and schedule allocations established during the initiation and planning phases of a project. Assuming that the scope of the project remains the same, it can be used to determine the budget or schedule variance.

project schedule- A project calendar shows the time periods for the planned work of the project.

project opening deadline- Aproject opening deadlineIt is a document that describes the scope, organization and objectives of a project. It is usually created by a project manager and formally approved by the sponsor. A project charter authorizes the project manager to use the organization's resources for the project and is understood to be an agreement between the sponsor, stakeholders, and the project manager. (See alsoProject)

Project Cost Management (PCM)- The use of an information system to estimate, measure and control costs throughout the life cycle of the project. Intended to complete projects within budget.

definition of the project- A project definition or project order is a document, created by a project manager and approved by a project sponsor, that describes the scope, organization, and objectives of a project. Authorizes a project manager's use of resources for a project and represents an agreement between the sponsor, stakeholders, and the project manager (see alsoproject order)

Project Management Knowledge Base (PMBOK)- The PMBOK is a collection of knowledge related to project management maintained by the Project Management Institute.

Project Management Office- An organizational unit that oversees activities related to project management within an organization. The goal is to make project work easier and faster using standard procedures. A Project Management Office also acts as a collection point for general project-related knowledge and resources.

project management process- A management process that covers all phases of a project, from the beginning to the achievement of the goal.

Project Management Professional (PMP)- AProject Management Professional (PMP)is a person who has been certified by the Project Management Institute after completing a formal course of study, an exam, and a specified number of hours to manage projects. Certification is considered the gold standard in project management.

Project Management Simulators- Software training tools that teach project management skills through interactive learning and provide real-time feedback that allows project management trainees to practice and reassess their decision making. Some simulators, such as the Monte Carlo simulator, are used to support and complement decision making in real projects.

project management software-project management softwareis a family of tools commonly used in managing complex projects. They provide the ability to: calculate estimates; create and manage schedules and budgets; track and monitor project activities and progress; allocate and allocate resources; optimize decision making; and communicate and collaborate with members of a project team.

project management triangle- A visual metaphor illustrating the relationships between scope, cost, and schedule. It expresses the idea that none of the three aspects can be changed without affecting the others.

project Manager- The person charged with initiating, planning, executing, and completing a project and managing all aspects of project performance during these phases. The term is typically used for a project management professional. Project managers can use the organization's resources for projects. They serve as contact points for sponsors, program administrators, and other interested parties.

network design- A visual representation of the activities and dependencies associated with the successful completion of a project.

Project performance indicators- Measures to assess project performance, usually in comparison to project or performance baselines. Typically this includes cost, schedule, and scope status.

design phase- A specific phase in a project management life cycle. Each phase includes a series of activities related to the project.

Proyect Plan- A document formally approved by the project manager, sponsor, and other stakeholders, detailing the approved cost, schedule, and scope baselines. Manages the execution, control and evaluation of the quality and performance of the projects. The project plan also forms the basis for communication between project participants. Project plans may vary in their level of detail.

project planning- Project planning is usually the longest phase of the project management life cycle. This includes determining cost, schedule, and scope baselines and using them to create a detailed roadmap for executing project activities and creating deliverables.

Project Portfolio Management (PPM)- A method of collectively managing each program and project in a portfolio to achieve organizational objectives. It is about optimizing the mix and timing of projects to pursue the objectives as effectively as possible. Project portfolio management is closely related to organizational project management.

Project Plan Network Diagram- A chart is a visual representation of how planned project activities are organized and linked. Depending on the type of network diagram, the boxes represent activities or events and the arrows indicate activities or dependencies, usually with expected durations.

Project Scope Statement- A project scope statement describes what a project is intended to achieve and describes the expected results. It forms the basis for measurable objectives against which the success of a project is measured. Project scope information is often part of the project plans.

Project Actors- Usually ainterest groupsIt is any part that can be affected by a project. In project management, the term generally refers to the parties that have a stake in the successful completion of a project.

project group- A project team is responsible for collectively directing and managing a project and related activities throughout the project life cycle. Project teams can include members of many different functional groups within an organization. Depending on the nature of the project, a project team may disband after the project is complete.

project levels- Project Size classifies projects into project levels based on staffing levels or time required to complete to determine the most appropriate project management practices.

projected organization- A projected organization organizes all its activities into a collection of projects, programs, and portfolios. Projects are typically done for clients or external clients. Prioritizing project work means that the project manager can use resources and assign work at her own discretion.

proof of concept- A proof of concept is derived from a pilot project or experiment that investigates whether an activity can be completed or a concept realized. It shows the feasibility of an idea.

Portion -The term sharing is used to define the sum of unique skills that team members bring to a project. These skills can be used for mutual benefit.

Q - Project Management Terms

Qualitative risk analysis- A project management technique that subjectively analyzes the likelihood and impact of risk. Risks are ranked using a probability and impact matrix and those deemed significant may be subjected to a quantitative risk analysis.

Quality- In project management, quality is a measure of the degree of excellence of a service. Quality can also refer to a clearly defined set of stakeholder requirements against which results are evaluated.

QA- A set of practices designed to monitor processes and build confidence that results meet quality expectations. This may include quality audits and the mandatory application of best practices.

QA- The use of standardized procedures to ensure that the results meet the expectations of the interested parties. It includes not only defining and identifying unacceptable results, but also managing processes to optimize results.

quality management plan- A quality management plan establishes the quality expectations of interested parties and describes quality assurance and quality control policies for monitoring results and meeting those expectations. It is part of a project management plan.

quality planning- Quality planning involves identifying the expected quality standards and establishing mechanisms to ensure that these standards are met. You can also recommend corrective actions when quality standards are not met.

Quality, Cost, Delivery (QCD)- QCD is a management approach that focuses on evaluating production processes in terms of three aspects: quality, cost and delivery. It seeks to simplify process management and facilitate decision-making, providing objective information on each of the three aspects, understanding that changing one aspect has an impact on the others.

Quantitative risk analysis- Mathematical analysis of the probability and impact of risk. In project management, it is not a substitute for a qualitative risk analysis. Instead, the quantitative analysis follows the qualitative analysis and assesses the risks that the qualitative analysis identified as material.

R - Project Management Terms

Protocolo RAID- RAID is an acronym for Risks, Assumptions, Problems and Dependencies. The RAID log is a project management tool that records progress in these four aspects of project work for the benefit of stakeholders and to assess project completion.

RASCI/RACI card- During the start of the project, a RASCI table is created to identify who are: responsible for the project activities, responsible for the execution of the work, signatories of the work, consulted on the activities of the work and informed of the status of the construction site. . The acronym can be simplified asCATCH A COLD. (See alsoResponsibility Assignment Matrix)

Reengineering- Reengineering involves a comprehensive redesign or overhaul of core processes to achieve significant performance improvements. It focuses on optimizing important performance areas such as quality and efficiency. Reengineering often involves restructuring organizations so that cross-functional teams can manage processes from start to finish.

release- In IT project management, a release is fully functional software that is delivered to a customer as agreed, usually after several iterations.

remote team- Remote team members often work together electronically from different geographic locations.

repetitive- The term repeatable is used to describe a sequence of activities that can be easily and efficiently repeated. Repeatable processes are cost effective because they usually avoid negative deviations and have established procedures.

Budget request- A formal invitation for expressions of interest issued by an organization wishing to purchase goods or services. (See alsosuave)

request budget- Upon receipt of proposals after submitting a Request for Quotation, an organization will send a Request for Quotation to pre-selected vendors requesting detailed cost estimates for specific goods or services.

requirements management plan- A requirements management plan explains how project requirements are defined, managed, and delivered. It forms part of a project management plan and is used to guide project execution and control to properly meet requirements.

Matrix traceability requirements- A requirements tracking worksheet during the product design and testing life cycle. It is used to ensure that a design can meet the requirements specified during the verification process.

Requirements- A set of provisions related to the deliverables of the project. They are a key element of the project scope and detail stakeholder expectations for a project.

riesgo residual- Risks that have not been or cannot be addressed through risk prevention or mitigation procedures.

Resource allocation- The allocation and planning of resources for activities related to the project, ideally in the most efficient way possible. Resource allocation is usually done by a project manager, although it can be overridden by a program manager if resources are shared between projects. (See alsoassignment)

resource availability- Resource availability indicates whether a specific resource is available at a specific time.

resource breakdown- A hierarchical list of the resources needed to work on the project, sorted by type and function.

resource calendar- A resource calendar shows the availability of resources, usually by shift, during a specified period of time.

resource leveling- A technique of altering the project schedule to keep resource consumption below a defined threshold. It is used when it is important to limit the consumption of resources. Resource leveling can affect the critical path of a project.

Resource load profiles- Resource stress profiles indicate the number and type of personnel required for project work over periods of time.

Resource optimization techniques- Resource optimization techniques aim to balance the supply and demand of resources. Depending on whether project duration or resource consumption limitation is prioritized, they can be used to change the start and finish dates of activities to affect or not affect the critical path of a project. (See alsoresource levelingmifeature smoothing)

feature smoothing- A technique that uses float when allocating resources so as not to affect the overall duration of the project. It is used when project time constraints are important. Resource leveling does not affect the critical path of a project.

Constrained Resource Scheduling- Adjusted the start and end dates of a limited resource program based on projected resource availability.

resources- The elements that a project needs to successfully achieve its objectives. Examples of resources are equipment, people, locations, facilities, and money.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix- A responsibility assignment matrix identifies who: are responsible for project activities, are responsible for performing the work, are consulted about the work activities, and are informed about the status of the work. (See alsoCRAB/CRABDiagram)

retention- The amount of money withheld from a contract payment pending completion of the contract.

Return on Equity (ROI)- The expected financial return of a project, expressed as a percentage of the project's total investment. It is used to assess the overall profitability of a project.

Risk- The probability of occurrence of a specific event that affects the monitoring of objectives. By definition, risks are not negative. In project management, opportunities are also seen as risks.

risk taking- Risk acceptance means recognizing a risk and not taking preventive action against it.

(Video) Top 12 Project Management Jargon Terms Project Managers Use

risk appetite- The level and type of risk that an organization is willing to accept in anticipation of profit. It is not the same as risk tolerance, which is the level of variability in performance indicators that an organization is willing to accept.

risk assessment- An activity that involves identifying the potential risks of a project and examining how those risks, if they materialized, would affect the objectives.

risks prevention- Risk prevention focuses on avoiding threats that may harm an organization, its projects or assets. Unlike risk management, which aims to mitigate the impact of an adverse event, risk prevention seeks to address vulnerabilities and ensure that these events do not occur.

risk rating structure- A hierarchical model of all risks, organized in a categorized way.

risk category- A set of risks grouped by cause.

risk efficiency- A concept based on the idea of ​​maximizing the risk-return ratio. This can be done in two ways: by minimizing risk for a given level of expected return or by seeking the highest possible expected return for a given level of risk.

increased risk- Higher risk means increasing the probability that a positive opportunity or risk will materialize.

risk exploitation- Risk exploration focuses on ensuring that a positive opportunity or risk materializes.

risk assessment- The process of identification and study of risks and their impact on the objectives of the project.

Risk management- A subset of management strategies related to the identification and assessment of risks and the adoption of measures to reduce the probability or impact of adverse risks. Risk managers try to ensure that adverse risks do not compromise business or project objectives.

risk mitigation- Risk mitigation involves reducing the probability of an adverse risk occurring and protecting project objectives from the effects of an adverse risk.

Risk monitoring and control- The risk monitoring and control process uses a risk management plan to identify risks and implement appropriate risk responses.

risk holder- A risk owner is responsible for determining and implementing the appropriate responses to a specific type of risk. (See alsoRisk Response Owner)

hazard log- A risk register or risk log is a tool for recording risk situations and risk responses as they occur.

Risk Response Owner- A risk owner oversees a specific type of risk and implements appropriate risk actions as needed. (Also see risk owner)

Risk response planning- Risk response planning is normally carried out after risk analysis has been carried out to determine the appropriate courses of action for risks considered significant.

risk sharing- Risk sharing implies transferring the responsibility of a positive risk to a third party, which is usually more specialized and better able to take advantage of the opportunity.

risk threshold- The level at which the probability or impact of a risk becomes so significant that a risk response is deemed necessary by the risk manager.

risk tolerance- The level of variability in performance indicators that an organization is willing to accept. It is not the same as risk appetite, which represents the level and type of risk an organization is willing to accept in anticipation of profit.

risk transfer- Risk transfer involves transferring the responsibility for the risk to a third party, generally specialized and more capable of dealing with the risk or resisting its effects.

risk triggers- An event that causes a risk. A trigger can serve as a warning that a risk has occurred or will occur.

Rolling-Wave-Planung- A planning approach that focuses on detailed details of work to be performed in the near future and progressively lower levels of detail for work planned in the future. It is based on the consideration that work planned in the future is more susceptible to change and therefore less worth planning in detail. Continuous wave scheduling only works for schedules with well-defined iterations.

deeper cause- The main reason for the occurrence of an event.

to keep records- A complete catalog of information necessary to carry out operations and respond to emergency situations that arise during operations. In general, it describes all the regular operating procedures and emergency measures step by step.

S - Project Management Terms

S-curve analysis- An S curve tracks accumulated financial or labor costs. S-curve analysis is used to compare the cumulative costs of a project at any time to a cumulative cost baseline established during the planning phase. It allows project managers and sponsors to assess performance and progress.

Time- A complete list of project activities and milestones in logical order, with start and end dates for each component.

Plan Baseline- A plan baseline is the original project plan, approved by the project team, sponsor, and stakeholders, against which performance will be measured. Schedule baselines are generally inflexible, although modification of a schedule baseline may be permitted through a formal change control process.

flat compression technology- A schedule compression technique speeds up projects without sacrificing scope by reducing the length of a project's critical path. There are two main methods of compressing schedules: blocking and fast tracking. (See alsoduration compression)

timeline template- A logically structured schedule for project activities. It is used to create a project schedule.

Analysis of the schedule model- Schedule template analysis examines the project schedule created from a schedule template. Aims to optimize the schedule, usually through the use of scheduling software.

Schedule network analysis- Schedule network analysis uses a variety of techniques to identify early and late start and finish dates of project activities and thereby create project schedules.

Plan Performance Index (SPI)- The relationship between the value of the benefit and the planned value at a given time. It shows if a project is going according to plan. An SPI of less than one indicates that the project is behind schedule. An SPI greater than one indicates that the project is ahead of schedule.

deviation from plan- deviation from planIt is the difference between the earned value and the planned value at any given time.

scientific management- Scientific management was one of the first attempts to bring scientific approaches to process management. Its earliest form was derived from a 1911 monograph by Frederick W. Taylor, which focused on increasing economic efficiency through analysis and optimization of work processes.

Reach- The scope of a project includes everything that must be achieved to be considered successful.

Scope Baseline- The set of requirements, expectations and work packages approved as project deliverables. It is used to track and evaluate project performance.

Scope Change Management- Scope change management deals with scope changes defined in the scope baseline and project management plan. Since scope changes often involve cost estimates and schedules, scope change management includes reviewing the estimates and properly communicating them to stakeholders, as well as providing the necessary resources to meet the new scope requirements.

opportunist- opportunistrefers to incremental changes to the project scope that occur without a formal scope change process. Scope shift is considered negative because unauthorized scope changes affect cost and schedule, but do not allow for additional revisions of cost and schedule estimates.

effort-effortIt is an iterative development process used in software development projects. Scrum-based projects focus on prioritizing requirements and working towards a clear set of goals over a defined period of time called a sprint. Therefore, the development team works through the list of requirements in several sprints. Scrum based projects generally do not have a project manager. Instead, the project team meets daily to update progress.

secondary risk- A risk derived from a reaction to risk.

Security- Security in project management generally refers to protecting people, information and resources from risk.

six sigma- An approach to process management that focuses on almost completely eliminating defects in products or services. It uses quality management methods to improve and optimize the processes involved in the production of a product or service so that 99.99966 percent of the process results are free of errors.

out of time- The amount of time that the early start of an activity can be delayed without affecting the duration of the project. (See alsofloat)

sliding chart- A sliding chart graphically compares the projected completion dates of the activity with the originally planned completion dates.

Schlupf- The negative deviation between the expected and actual dates of completion of the activity. Slippage can also refer to the general trend of a project falling behind schedule beyond planned completion dates.

soft design- A soft project has no physical output.

software development- Software engineering is generally defined as the application of engineering principles in the development of software. Systematically applies scientific and technological approaches to the design, operation, and modification of software.

spiral life cycle- The development model of an IT system that aims to learn from experience, using both iterative development and the waterfall model. It consists of four consecutive phases: identification, design, construction, and risk assessment and analysis. At the end of each lifecycle, the customer evaluates one iteration, and the spiral sequence begins again after receiving customer feedback. The spiral model is typically used on long-term projects or those where requirements are expected to vary and customer feedback must be incorporated in phases.

Sponsor- A sponsor has final authority over a project. They provide high-level direction, approve project financing, cost and budget variances, and determine the scope of the project. Sponsors are usually senior executives who need to back a high-level project.

Carrera- In iterative project development, a sprint is a fixed unit of time in which the project typically runs through a complete development life cycle. A sprint usually lasts a few weeks.

interest groups- In project management, ainterest groupsIt is any party that has an interest in the successful completion of a project. More generally, the term refers to anyone affected by a project. (See alsoproject participant)

standards- A standard prescribes a set of standardized rules, guidelines, and proprietary requirements for processes or products that are approved by a recognized body. By definition, standards are not mandatory. They are accepted by consensus, although they may be applied as a requirement for participation in certain markets.

start to finish- In a start-finish relationship, a successor activity cannot finish before a predecessor activity has started.

start start- In a start-to-start relationship, a successor activity cannot start until a predecessor activity has started.

Description of services (SoW)- ASpecificationsis a complete and detailed list of the services provided for in a contract, with the dates provided for each service.

steering Committee- A steering committee provides high-level strategic direction for a project. It typically consists of people from a variety of stakeholders and is designed to provide consensus-based guidance for projects with a large number or variety of stakeholders.

story point- In sprint-based projects, a story point is a measure of the amount of work required to implement a specific user story. By assigning and summarizing story points, project teams can define a realistic number of user stories for action during an iteration or sprint.

follow-up activity- In a schedule, a later activity logically follows and depends on an activity that immediately precedes it.

Summary of the activity- In a network diagram, a summary activity combines a set of related activities and visually represents them as a single activity.

Sunk costs- Costs that cannot be recovered after spending.

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)- In systems engineering, the systems development life cycle is the process of creating, launching, and maintaining an information system, which may include hardware, software, or both. The typical SDLC consists of six sequential phases: planning, analysis, design, implementation, testing, and maintenance.

Systems engineer- Branch of engineering that applies the principles of systems thinking to the design of complex systems. Because complex systems are harder to coordinate and make coherent, systems engineering focuses on designing and optimizing systems as an interactive whole rather than the sum of their parts. Because complex systems include both technical and human elements, systems engineering is inherently interdisciplinary.

T - Project Management Terms

Task- In project management, a task is a unit of work or activity required to achieve project objectives. Usually, a task must be completed by a specific date. Tasks can be divided into assignments or subtasks.

task analysis- A task breakdown describes the actions or resources required to complete a task.

Proof- The testing phase includes the evaluation of the developed product to assess the quality and performance and determine if the requirements have been met.

Theory of Constraints- The Theory of Constraints explains that every process is limited from its optimal performance by its weakest link or links, called constraints. The Theory of Constraints methodology involves identifying these weak links through a strategy called focus and improving them until they no longer limit performance.

Danger- A negative risk that may affect the objectives of the project.

three point estimate- A superset of estimation techniques that use averages (or weighted averages) of the most likely, most optimistic, and most pessimistic cost and duration estimates to form final estimates.

Time and material contract- A time and materials contract pays per unit of time and reimburses the material costs of the contracted work.

time graph- In project management, a schedule graphically represents the planned activities for a difficult project to be completed sequentially over a geographic distance, such as: B. building a highway or installing an oil pipeline. Therefore, it provides a scheduled time and relative geographic location for each activity.

time limit- The time limit for a task is the time window or deadline by which it must be completed.

time scale network diagram- A network diagram is scaled in time when the lengths of activities are drawn to scale to indicate their expected duration.

Zeitkasten- Timeboxing is a project management strategy that prioritizes meeting deadlines over scope requirements. Project activities are assigned specific time periods, so-called time boxes. Project teams work to complete as many requirements as possible within each time frame and move on to follow-up activities once the deadline is over.

Timeline- ATimeline It is a graphical and sequential representation of project activities.

Complete Performance Index (TCPI)- The overall performance index of a project is the cost performance it must achieve to be completed within budget. TCPI is calculated as the ratio of remaining work to remaining budget.

tolerance- The acceptable level of variability in project performance. The project sponsor is usually informed when tolerance limits are exceeded.

top down estimate- Top-down estimating uses historical data from similar projects to calculate time and cost estimates. (See alsoanalog estimation)

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)- The total cost of ownership estimates the total direct and indirect costs incurred in the purchase, operation and maintenance of an asset during its useful life.

overall swimmer- The amount of time an activity can be moved from its anticipated start date without affecting the project finish date.

trigger condition- A condition that causes a hazard to occur. Trigger conditions can serve as warning signs that hazards have occurred or will occur. (See alsorisk triggers)

U, V, W and X - project management terms

uniform process- A unified process can refer to a family of iterative software development process frameworks. Unified processes have four phases: initiation, elaboration, construction, and transition. Each phase consists of a series of time-limited iterations, which in turn comprise a cycle of requirements specification, analysis, design, implementation, and testing, with emphasis on these changes as the project team progresses through the phases. iterations. Each iteration results in an improved version of the system, called an increment.

case of use -In software development, a use case is a step-by-step list of actions that end users would take to achieve specific goals. Use cases facilitate end-user-oriented software testing.

User History -A design requirement in one sentence. Typically, it identifies actual or hypothetical users, what those users want from the software, and why they want it. Project development teams prioritize user stories in each iteration, assigning story points

V Life Cycle- The V in V life cycle means verification and validation. It is a sequential software development process that associates a corresponding test phase with each phase of the software development life cycle. During the verification phase, a project team works at increasingly granular levels of detail to identify the requirements and design, and then builds the software. Validation works in the opposite direction, as testers take turns examining software components before moving on to system testing and finally verifying that the overall design meets requirements.

Value Engineering- Value engineering aims to improve the functionality-cost ratio of a product by providing improved functionality at lower cost. Some uses of value engineering have been criticized because manufacturers can reduce costs by using lower quality components that reduce product life.

Price-performance ratio- In project management, profitability is expressed as the ratio of financial and other benefits to resources expended on a project.

Wertebaum- A hierarchical model of the characteristics of a product or service that determine its value.

variance analysis- The practice of investigating discrepancies between planned and actual performance.

Variation at completion (VAC)- The variance of a project at completion is the difference between its budget at completion and its estimate at completion.

vertical cut- A performance indicator that shows progress across all project components or performance areas at a given point in time.

Virtual Planning and Construction (VDC)- A method based on the use of technology in design and construction projects. Use building information modeling (BIM) tools that focus on projectable and manageable aspects of projects to create integrated models that predict project performance.

virtual time- A virtual team is made up of people from different organizations, locations, or hierarchies. It's not necessarily the same as a remote team, which is a group of people working together from different locations.

waterfall model-O waterfall model It is a software development life cycle in which development stages are sequential, non-iterative, and non-overlapping. It is generally reserved for small projects with simple, well-defined requirements, as a sequential development process makes it difficult to review the analysis and design phases once testing has begun. (See alsolinear sequential model)

Weighted frame method- The weighted milestone method allows project managers to estimate earned value by dividing work packages into weighted segments. Each segment represents part of the budget amount for the work package and ends with a milestone. When a segment milestone is considered complete, a portion of the total value of the work package has been achieved.

Analysis of hypothetical scenarios- A simulation technique that allows project managers to determine and compare the impact of specific conditions on project schedules and goals.

longband delphi- An estimation technique based on expert consensus. Each member of an estimation team uses a work breakdown structure to create anonymous estimates of the effort required to complete each project element or work package. The estimates are then reviewed as a group before the experts create new estimates, and the process is repeated over several rounds until a consensus is reached. (See alsodelphi technology)

Work- In project management, work is the amount of effort required to complete a task.

work permit system- A formal process to ensure that project work is completed in a timely manner and in a logical order.

Project Structure Plan (PSP)- Aproject structure planIt is a comprehensive and hierarchical model of the deliverables that make up the scope of a project. It describes everything that a project team must deliver and achieve. A work breakdown structure classifies each project element or work package into various groups and can be used to generate cost estimates.

Project Structure Plans Directory- A document containing details, descriptions, and planning information for each element of a work breakdown structure. It can be thought of as a work package programming dictionary.

work package- The work packages of a project are its lowest level deliverables. They are described in detail in a project breakdown sheet.

working current- In project management, a workflow is a logically ordered set of activities that must be completed to achieve project objectives. The term generally refers to the complete sequence of work activities from project initiation to completion.

alternative solution- A way to avoid a problem for which there is no permanent solution or for which no adequate response has been planned.

X-bar control charts- An X-bar control chart contains two separate charts showing the sample means and ranges for a series of regularly collected samples of the same size. The sampled data forms a characteristic of a product or process.

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